Friday, November 2, 2018

Foot and mouth disease

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine. It also affects sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hooved ruminants. FMD causes painful sores and blisters on the feet, mouth and teats of animals. FMD is caused by a virus. FMD virus is a member of the Aphthovirus genus.

Signs of illness can appear after an incubation period of 1 to 8 days, but often develop within 3 days. Foot and mouth disease virus mainly affects members of the order Artiodactyla (cloven-hooved mammals). Most species in this order are thought to be susceptible to some degree. Important livestock hosts include cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, water buffalo and yaks. Cattle are important maintenance hosts in most areas.

The disease is characterized by fever and blister-like lesions followed by erosions on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats, and between the hooves. Foot lesions occur in the area of the coronary band and between the toes. Infected cattle are depressed, reluctant to move, and unwilling or unable to eat, which can lead to decreased milk production, weight loss, and poor growth.
Foot and mouth disease
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